Pain in the buttock is a common clinical presentation, particularly in individuals with associated lower back pain or stiffness. In athletes, buttock pain is most common in sprinting or kicking sports. Symptoms may present suddenly due to a specific incident or gradually over time and may arise from local structures or be referred from the spine or sacroiliac joints.

The most common cause of sudden or gradual onset pain in the buttock region is referred pain from the lower back. This may be due to activities such as repetitive, prolonged or forceful bending, lifting, twisting or sitting and may sometimes present upon waking in the morning following these activities. In these instances, damage to the joints of the lower back are common, such as a lumbar disc bulge or facet joint sprain.

There are numerous other causes of buttock pain, some of which present suddenly due to a specific incident, others which develop gradually over time.

Below are some of the more common causes of buttock pain with a brief description of each condition to aid diagnosis. Conditions have been organised according to sudden or gradual onset and common or less common conditions for ease of use.